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Euro-Infectious Diseases 2019

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Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Some are transmitted by bites from insects or animals. And others are acquired by ingesting contaminated food or water or being exposed to organisms in the environment.

Infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future have been defined as "emerging." These diseases, which respect no national boundaries, include new infections resulting from changes or evolution of existing organisms. Known infections spreading to new geographic areas or populations.Previously unrecognized infections appearing in areas undergoing ecologic transformation. Old infections reemerging as a result of antimicrobial resistance in known agents or breakdowns in public health measures.

 

There are many different causes of rare diseases. The majority are thought to be genetic, directly caused by changes in genes or chromosomes. In some cases, genetic changes that cause disease are passed from one generation to the next. In other cases, they occur randomly in a person who is the first in a family to be diagnosed.

 

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases that are transmitted from a person to another through sexual contact or blood of an infected person. The pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa are responsible for the disease transmission. Bacterial STDs are Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, Chancroid. Viral STDs include HIV/AIDS, Human papillomavirus, Hepatitis, Genital Herpes. Trichomoniasis is a STD caused by parasitic protozoan. Candidiasis is considered to be an fungal STD which is spread by fungus Candida albicans. Most of the sexually transmitted diseases such as viral STDs have no cure but the disease can be controlled with proper treatment while bacterial, fungal and protozoan STDs can be cured with antifungals and antibiotics.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, is a group of progressive lung diseases. The most common are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Many people with COPD have both of these conditions.Emphysema slowly destroys air sacs in your lungs, which interferes with outward air flow. Bronchitis causes inflammation and narrowing of the bronchial tubes, which allows mucus to build up.COPD makes it harder to breathe. Symptoms may be mild at first, beginning with coughing and shortness of breath. As it progresses, it can become increasingly difficult to breathe.You may experience wheezing and tightness in the chest. Some people with COPD have exacerbations, or flare-ups of severe symptoms.The top cause of COPD is smoking. Long-term exposure to chemical irritants can also lead to COPD. It’s a disease that takes a long time to develop.

Urinary tract infections are caused by microbes such as bacteria overcoming the body's defenses in the urinary tract. They can affect the kidneys, bladder, and the tubes that run between them. The urinary tract can be divided into the upper urinary tract and the lower urinary tract. The upper urinary tract consists of the kidneys and the ureters, and the lower urinary tract consists of the bladder and the urethra. The vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), usually found in the digestive system. Chlamydia and mycoplasma bacteria can infect the urethra but not the bladder.

Viral and immune mediated disorders of the nervous system are among the most challenging neurological disorders. The most common neuroimmune disorder is multiple sclerosis; and HIV is the most common viral infection of the nervous system. Common to both disorders is the progressive loss of neurons, resulting in significant cognitive and motor dysfunction. A major focus of Mayo researchers is to understand the pathophysiology of neuronal injury associated with these disorders to develop new diagnostic markers, therapeutic targets, and new areas of research applicable to other neurodegenerative diseases.

Flu, or influenza,is a contagious respiratory infection caused by a variety of flu viruses. Symptoms of flu involve muscle aches and soreness, headache, and fever. Flu viruses enter the body through the mucus membranes of your nose, eyes, or mouth. Every time you touch your hand to one of these areas, you are possibly infecting yourself with a virus.

This makes it very important to keep your hands germ-free with frequent and thorough hand washing. Encourage family members to do the same to stay well and prevent flu.

Ebola viral infection is caused by virus transmitted through body fluids and through air. It occurs rarely but it is very deadly which results in death and outbreak. Ebola virus disease symptoms are very severe which appears in 2-3 days. Ebola primary symptoms include fever, sore throat, muscular pain and headaches then followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, decreased function of the liver and kidneys then loss of blood internally and externally finally leading to low blood pressure and fluid loss resulting in death.  Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by aedes mosquitoes. People with zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain and malaise or headache.

 

Tropical diseases encompass all diseases that occur solely, or principally, in the tropics. In practice, the term is often taken to refer to infectious diseases that thrive in hot, humid conditions, such as malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, and dengue.

Antibiotics/antibacterial drugs are the most commonly used and abused antimicrobial agents in the management of bacterial infections globally. They have been used for more than 50 years to improve both human and animal health since and during the antibiotic golden age and post-antibiotic golden age . The discovery of the antibiotics and antibacterial agents revolutionized the treatment of infectious bacterial diseases that used to kill millions of people during the pre-antibiotic golden age worldwide . The major sources of antibiotics/ antibacterial agents include Streptomyces , Penicilliums , Ac- tinomycetes and Bacilli The antibiotic golden age is the period when the entire antibiotics/antibacterial drug spectra were discovered and almost all the bacterial infections were treatable with these drugs

Patients are cared for in an environment that is safe and clean. . Every interaction in general practice should include a risk assessment of the potential for infection transmission. Hand hygiene, infectious prevention education and training, safe injection practices.

Diagnosis for infectious diseases is laboratory tests, imaging scans, biopsies, and antibiotics, antifungal are given for treatment of infectious diseases.

Some common and preventable diseases diphtheria, Haemophilus influenza serotype infection, hepatitis B,  measles, meningitis, mumps, pertussis, poliomyelitis, rubella, tetanus, tuberculosis, and yellow fever. Some of the vaccines for preventive infectious diseases are, Animal vaccines, cancer vaccines, influenza vaccines, etc.